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structure of DNA RNA

About DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid also called DNA, is an important molecule that carries genetic information from one generation to the other. Though Watson and Crick were the first one to give exact structure of DNA, but before them several scientists and researchers with their experiments and findings have discovered several information about this molecule of life.

The first insight about DNA was discovered by Swiss physician, Friedrich Miescher. He isolated a strange thing from the nuclei of a cell that was never discovered before and thus named it as “nuclein”. Mendel’s experiment in pea plant also proved that certain traits in pea plant were inherited from parent generation but he could not locate the exact thing that helped in the transmission of trait. Nucleic acid and gene were separately discovered but no one was able to draw a connection between the both. In 1944, American scientist Oswald Avery from his experiment in the bacteria proved that genes where made of nucleic acid.

Likewise a Russian biochemist- Phoebus Levene was the first to find out about the phosphate-sugar-base components of a single nucleotide and also the first one to discover the carbohydrate component of DNA and RNA. Likewise, Chargaff- the Australian biochemist, elaborated the findings of Levene and proposed two main information from his findings and experiments. First- the composition of nucleotide varies in DNA among species, second- the amount of adenine is equal to thymine, whereas the amount of guanine is similar to cytosine. This concludes that total amount of purines and the total amount of pyrimidine are nearly equal. Therefore, before the discovery of DNA structure; much of the work was already done by different scientists. While other scientist were using experimental methods to discover the structure of DNA, Watson and Crick worked with stick and ball models to find out about the structure of DNA. Therefore after lots of hard-work and tests, in 1953; Watson and crick was able to expose helical structure of DNA. They also discovered the unidentified fact about base pairing from the work of Erwin Chargaff, which is also called Chargaff rule of base pairing. If you want to receive detailed information about the work of researchers and scientists on the structure of DNA to write your assignment, you can submit your question at and get quick help from the tutors here.

Structure of DNA

  • DNA is a double helical molecule where the two strands (3’-5’ and 5’-3’) are anti-parallel or complementary to each other running on opposite directions.
  • The double helix consists of two different grooves; major groove and minor groove. Both these grooves are binding sites of different molecules.
  • This polymeric molecule is made up of four simple monomeric units that are termed as nucleotides called Adenosine monophosphate, thymidine monophosphate, guanosine monophosphate and cytosine monophosphate. Each of these nucleotides is again made up of phosphoric acid moiety, a pentose sugar and a base (purine- adenine and guanine; pyrimidine- thymine and cytosine).
  • The alternating group of phosphate and deoxyribose sugar makes the backbone of DNA molecule whereas bases lies inside of the helix, binding the two opposite strands together.
  • Adenine always pair with thymine and Guanine always pair with cytosine. The pairing is supported and kept stable by hydrogen bonds that forms between the bases. These are few points highlighted here to describe the structure of DNA, but to get detailed data with recent addition or modification on the topic, you can ask for structure of DNA assignment help from our online tutors.

RNA is another molecule that was of interest for researchers. Though most of the structure of RNA is alike DNA, but still there are some notable differences.

Structure of RNA

  • RNA is a single stranded molecule.
  • RNA is also made of smaller molecules called nucleotides that is composed of phosphate, nitrogen bases and D-ribose pentose sugar.
  • The bases present in RNA are adenine, guanine, cytosine and uracil.
  • N-glycosidic bond connects nucleobase and D-ribose.
  • Ester bond binds ribose to the phosphate group.
  • Phosphodiester bonds connect RNA nucleotides present in the backbone structure.

All other features are same as that of DNA. Therefore the major differences between a RNA molecule and a DNA molecule are: RNA is single stranded whereas DNA is double stranded; the sugar in DNA is deoxyribose whereas in RNA it is ribose sugar and instead of thymine, uracil is present in RNA. Besides these all other structures are almost similar in both these molecules. Looking for more detailed information on this topic? Want some diagrams and images for accurate understanding? Just give a call at or a drop an email requesting for structure of RNA assignment help. You will be replied immediately by our tutors.


DNA is molecule of life that carries genetic information. Different scientists discovered one or the other information related to the structure of DNA, but it was Watson and Crick who gave the actual model of DNA depending on the prior investigation and researches done by other scientists. Soon after the discovery of DNA, research on RNA started and hence it was concluded that both these molecules are almost structurally similar with very few differences between them. For structure of DNA RNA assignment help, you can contact us anytime round-the-clock.

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The main topics which are considered in molecular biology are discussed in brief as follows:

  1. Molecular Biology
  2. Mendel's Discoveries
  3. Nucleic Acids Convey Genetic Information
  4. The Structure Of DNA And RNA
  5. The Replication Of DNA
  6. Transcription
  7. Translation
  8. Gene Regulation
  9. DNA Damage and repair

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