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Pollution Control Technologies – Coursework 1

Question 1.

Assuming the Sun and all the planets behave as black bodies, and considering the following information given in the Table below:

  • Determine the Solar flux arriving at the Earth’s surface, given that the temperature of the Sun is 6000K. Subsequently, determine the Earth’s effective temperature, Te.
  • Discuss the possibility of a greenhouse effect for the planets given in the Table.

Planet

Name

Distance from the

Sun (km)

Albedo

(a)

CO2

concentration

T (K) at ground level

Venus

8

1.08 x 10

0.75

0.96

700

Mars

8

2.28 x10

0.15

0.95

220

Earth

8

1.5 x10

0.31

X%

288

5 -8 -2 -4

Sun’s radius : 6.96x10 km; Stefan-Boltzmann Constant s = 5.67x10 W m K

Question 2.

  • Calculate the total mass of the Earth’s atmosphere given that at the Earth’s surface, the atmospheric pressure is: P(0) = 105 Pa, and that the radius of the Earth is RE=6400 km.
  • Calculate the mass of emitted carbon since pre-industrial times, given that the concentration of CO2 has risen from 278ppm to 398 ppm. You may assume: (i) that the molecular weight of Carbon is 12 g/mole and (ii) overall molecular weight of air and the atmospheric mass have not been modified since pre-industrial times.

Question 3.

A power plant burns 970 tons of coal (containing 2% sulphur) per day. All of the sulphur is burned completely and emitted into the atmosphere from a stack with an effective height of 102 m. For a wind speed of 5.2 m/s, atmospheric stability category C, calculate SO2 concentration at:

(a) the ground level along the plume centre line, 10 km downwind; (b) 5 m above ground, 3 km downwind, at central line.

Question 4.

In treating hazardous waste, will you support an international law that permits its open burning on the high seas? Open burning refers to combustion without emission controls. Discuss your answer in detail.

Question 5.

A stream feeding a river has an average flow of 0.03 m3/s and a phosphate concentration of 9.5 mg/l. The water leaving the river has a phosphate concentration of 5.1 mg/l. (a) Calculate the amount of phosphate deposited in the river each year.

  • Where does the phosphate go, since the outflow concentration is lower than the inflow concentration?
  • Will the phosphate concentration be higher at the surface of the river or towards the bottom?
  • Would you expect eutrophication of the river to be accelerated?

Question 6.

Suppose you are an engineer hired to build a wastewater treatment plant. Discuss the five most important wastewater parameters that you will test.

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