Effect of E-Training Sample Assignment
Effect of E-training
E-Training is the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to deliver information for education where instructors and learners are separated by distance, time, or both in order to enhance the learner’s learning experience and performance (Keller et al., 2007; Tarhini, 2016). Horton (2011) defines E-training as a set of instructions delivered via all electronic media such as the internet, intranets, and extranets. Thus, by eliminating the barriers of time and distance, individuals can now take charge of their own lifelong learning (Almajali, 2016; Bouhnik and Marcus, 2006; Fletcher 2005; Obeidat, 2015).
E- Training doesn’t require extensive computer skills, although familiarity with computers and software (especially Web browsers) helps to reduce the acceptance barriers (Steven, 2001; Tarhini, 2013). According to the studies carried out, the benefits of e-training acquiring basic skills, increased training time, and support for employees with disabilities, expanding access, improving quality of teaching and learning, increasing flexibility, reducing costs, increasing speed, skill development, saving natural resources needed at macro level can be pointed out (Dorrian J, 2009). Now many of the world's largest organizations have combined e-training with traditional training methods (Pavlica, 2001). Benefits of e-training: learning at anytime, anywhere in any field without similar learning prerequisites, individual learning along with cooperative learning, determining the pace of learning process and according to individual needs, 50% savings in time, 60% savings in cost, the possibility of teaching and learning for all people, training and learning bilaterally, getting fast results in teaching and learning, learning by using multimedia features and conservation of resources and reduction of environmental and noise pollution.
Guranda et. al, (2017) identified many advantages for e-training technologies including: Less expensive to deliver, affordable and saves time Flexibility in terms of availability- anytime anywhere. Similarly Zaidieh (2012) defined it as, Self-pacing for slow or quick learners reduces stress and increases satisfaction and retention. E-training allows more affective interaction between the learners and their instructors through the use of emails, discussion boards and chat room. Learners have the ability to track their progress.
Amara and Atia (2016) stated that e-training is helping to achieve the milestones in organizations while there is keen progress in human resource development. The e-training is occurring as the new concept in human development under the knowledge economy. It is not all along the single extraction but actually many other extensions have been associated with it. The use of e-training is actually assimilating the importance of information technology in scientific fields which are great in number. The major focus of the research of Amara and Atia (2016) is upon the e-training and their specific use in human resource development. The interesting point is that the department of HR is actually asserting the progress of organizations.
Omar et. al. (2011) exemplified it as the working of e-training in the sector like telecommunication sector. It is also operating same in the way as it is working in the other sectors. It is acknowledged that the telecommunication is the industry which is one of the vibrant sectors of the economy. There are many types of research in which there is the great role of e-training. Layton & Honey (2014) defined it as Infoentics Research is highlighting some of the major notions. It is stating the working of telecom which is globally operating and thus generating $2 trillion in revenues in 2013. In this industry, development acts as a catalyst and to the growth of knowledge economy. The success of the companies is directly proportional to the training.
Figueiredo (2011) in his dissertation stated the special advantage which is residing behind the working of e-training is the advantage that it can be accessed at anytime and anywhere. The process is actually avoiding the logistical issues and these are frequently associated with the working of training programs. All above that, the system is helping to extend the enterprise effectively. Frow and Payne (2011) assess the element of extending enterprise is usually playing a critical role in the success of the organization and especially in the communication sector. Companies like telecommunication usually based upon the working of dealers and relied heavily upon the working with dealers.
There is also the great role of the training and its practice in many of the fields of science and these are actually elaborating the validating practices. According to Salas, Tannenbaum, kraiger and Kimberley in 2012, there is the great need of measuring the validity of those training practices in every field. E-training and its practices must be discussed under the relative measures of validation. There is also the great need to measure those practices in a given scenario. The researchers are relating the situation of the organizations of US.
Yanson (2012) stated that there is a concept of science of training in every field and without this science; e-training could never be departed fully. It is also a simple example that organizations of US nearly spending billions on training each and every year. It is obvious to determine the worth of those training practices as these are helping to adapt, excel, complete and produce safe and secure environment. In this way, organizations achieve their goals. E-training is helping successfully to reduce the errors in such a high risk setting. These high risk settings may be emergency rooms, aviation and military as well. Along with that, it is also important in more conventional organizations.
Tan and Newman (2013), E-training and every type of training is thus becoming essential as these are helping to illustrate the competitiveness of the organizations. These training forces are aimed at educating the workforce. It is an understood point that investing in their employees yields greater results. Therefore, the training must be ensured as an initiative. If there is the wrong way to deliver, design and implement the training program, then it loses its validity of yielding the positive results.
Rubin and Babbie (2012) in their book demonstrate research work which is conducted by these researchers is actually illustrating the two major things; training works and the design, delivery and implemented matters of those training works. They are in point of showing the appropriateness of training works. It is asserted that e-training works must be designed in the way as these are fulfilling the needs of organizations as well as these are accomplishing the needs of trainers.
Briner and Denyer (2012) stated that there is actually the working of complete collaboration between the leaders and policymakers that how should the training method are to design and implemented in the way. It is not a haphazard practice but actually a systematic process which should be conducted in a systemized way. Before designing and implementation, those policymakers usually processed through the great elaboration of the needs and structure of the organization. Employees are also having the specific characteristics and features and these must be considered while for the working of those training programs. There are also the decision about what to train, how to train, and how to impact and evaluate the training effectively. It is also resulted from the series of meta-analysis which should provide the clear evidence of the working of e-training methods.
Managerial IT resources talk about skills of IT managers in supporting and classifying projects based on IT, appropriate allotment of resources, to take benefits of IT opportunities work process reorganization (Byrd & Davidson, 2003), to finish projects according to conditions and within budgetary and time restrictions, providing leadership and motivation to development teams (Melville et al., 2004), and for business practices to be implemented cooperating with business managers (van der Heijden, 2001; Ray et al., 2005).
Many processes related to businesses had been developed before the advent of Information Technology. After the application of IT, the businesses had been automated and they got to speed up. IT expertise, knowledge and the capabilities have helped the different units of a business to communicate being on larger distances and has helped in the effectiveness of the task management and employee performance (Loveman, 1994, p. 100-107). For a firm to innovate in both process innovation and product aspects, it has been discussed that IT resources act as major driving force. (Tarafdar& Gordon, 2007).
A major portion of capital investment of an organization may be constituted by IT and it is also a significant tool in making today’s business competitive and help it attain the desired growth. (Alshawi et al., 2003; Kumar, 2004; Huang et al., 2006). The knowledge in Information Technology has helped to gain competitive advantage even in HR, the processes and the HR trainings (Broderick & Boudreau, 1992). For an organization to transform IT is a vigorous component (Farbey et al., 1994).
The company can implement advanced and fundamental changes with the reengineering of value added and planned business processes through the assistance and support of IT (Choi & Chan, 1997). Only through a partnership between business managers and technology the essential association between investments in a sustainable business performance and IT infrastructure can be attained. Without this commitment and contribution of business management, technology management will give awareness to the business viewpoint (Parker & Benson, 1988). Inflexible organizational units will be replaced by managed work teams with corresponding skills was the philosophy whih was given by Keupp (2011) and Maclntosh (2013), having considerable impact on creativity and productivity of the workforce. Individual’s power with ease of access to a network of terminals or computers will increase more quickly than a large inflexible establishment’s power (Gilder, 1989). Usually IT can influence work tasks in a couple of ways: complementing the human efforts and displacing human resources involved in the work (Autor et al., 2003).
New researches into IT's influence on jobs also conclude that specific combinations of tasks that conform some jobs, can decrease the impact of IT (Autor, 2015). Research proposes that with regard to work activities and tasks, the role of IT is to help labor, thereby enhancing the overall performance and efficiency (Autor, 2015; Brynjolfsson and McAfee, 2012).
Martin emphasizes that workers make use of information in ways that are non-predictable. Whereas computers are rule bounded. They can only help make minor improvements in productivity. Furthermore IT doesn't enable the computers to replicate the process of human creativity and judgment. (Martin, 1998, p. 1063).Groth points out that IT is complex.
Even the simplest use of IT requires sophisticated knowledge of the technology by the staff who are supposed to implement the technology - that is usually not the case in small companies. Use of highly integrated systems in large companies make them lean, fast and gives them an edge in many crucial areas. For whatever purpose, if a small firm utilizes some kind of technology, a large company can utilize the same technology in a better way bringing in way more resources to bear - both in terms of competence and capital (Groth, 2003, p. 12). IT is no doubt evolving continuously and it will have an adverse positive effect in the few next decades of the eras coming ahead.
Therefore the infrastructure of the information technology should be made forceful enough to support new ideas and processes in a business (Davenport & Short, 1990). Digitalization and adaption to it is important in today’s world, so trainings in technology can provide the skills and knowledge related to the field of IT in this digital age (Liao & Chiang, 2008).
IT is linked with almost all the sub-fields of modern communication. Cloud is a technology which is still new but is used by almost every big name these days. Chen, Zhang, Hassan and Alamri in 2015 stated that this is the safest and easiest way to store the data whether it is related to communication or otherwise. Someone with the expertise to handle this branch of information technology can definitely have a successful professional career. According to a survey report which was presented in forth quarter by Russom (2011), almost 50% of the organizations are using this technology and there are still not enough experts to handle this complex algorithm. So, this field of IT has become an important and vital part of the communication system.
With the advancement of technology, there are definitely some entities which feed on the negativity. In this manner, Li, Chan and Skitmore (2012) indicated that with this advancement of technology, there is always a security risk attached and that is why new and better ways are always being discovered to save the data and keep the communication means safe from the bugs installed by the hackers.
The experts for privacy up gradation are now needed more than ever. Bangash (2017) considered it as one of significant threat to privacy and therefore demanded up gradation. Experts of IT are needed more than ever to save the communication network. It is very sensitive and important aspect because the security concerns are not taken care of regularly and completely it might end up as a disaster. Everything that people have worked really hard for might end up being useless if there are no IT experts in the field of compliance and security. It is important for the survival of latest, innovative, easy and convenient ways of communication to survive.
IT experts are the ones leading the modern world in this era. IT is the field that has revolutionized the modern world and introduced so many advancements that have changed the course of history and encouraged people to live a better than life as stated by book by Marksbery (2012). IT is the field that made the communication field what it is today. The means of communication are in the hands of lay-man all because there were some IT experts and software engineers worked hard to make it possible.
With the passage of time, there is the structure of rapid growth in the infrastructure of Information Technology. The study of Ramayah, Ahmad and Hong (2012) is stating that there are some major contributions of e-training or e-learning in the field of Information Technology. In recent years, the advancement of information technology has been contributed to the exponential growth in the corporate e-training. There is also the great contribution through which the employees gain the intimate learning experience without even attending any support from inside or outside of the environment of the organization.
Organizations are usually striving for enhancing the learning culture and in this way they are striving competitiveness. Online training facilities are now indulging into each and every sector and in this way, they are growing into popularity. Organizations are actually in a search that there is the need of immediate and strategic moves while including the flexible and well-trained workforce, Gordon (2014). Information technologies are usually driven well and smooth by expertise in the field. These expertise are actually illustrating the fact that there is also the great need to learn and control over the learning policies within the organization.
There is also the keen identification of works of IT expertise in the field of Information technology and especially in the public sector. According to Garson (2006), there is the shear contribution of the policy and management of the IT expertise when operating in the information technology in the public sector. In his book, he is also arising many issues with those IT expertise including privacy, access, security and regulation.
In his book Kapp (2012), he also discusses the organizational theory which is originating the organization behavior to the study of public information systems. Public information technology is not a simple concept for understanding but actually it is the concept which is illustrating as the panacea leading to a future which is relayed with the human problems and their solution (Kapp, 2012). It is also not indicated as the malevolent tidal force which could lead to the control and oppression.
Santana et. al. (2015), E-training is helping to identify those problems and it could be determined through that IT expertise. IT expertise uses the information technology as a tool to solve the most of the problems of the organization. There are actually many problems which have been associated with the information system and the learning culture about that information system could be easily prevailed and resolved through the effective learning methods and ways.
The rise of E-learning has really gone beyond and contributed in the field of success. Now we have to move forward and add this to the context, into the ways for improving the performance at the workplace (Rosenberg, 2005). Organizations have invested a lot of resources in the form of money and time in E-training to retain an educated and skilled workforce that has resulted in lower turnover rate, consistency in attitudes and convenience in work (Lee et al, 2011). Employee performance is an indication of the limit of an organizational member to productively accomplish organizational objectives (Venkatraman & Ramanujam, 1986). Employees exhibit their employee performance by different levels of productivity.
A lot of new methods are now in existence to find out employees performance in organizations (Wong; Wong, 2007; Prajogo, 2007). This includes the quality, quantity, knowledge or creativity of individual employees that they achieve in their work places. A key task for all managers in all types of firms is to motivate their team so that they can come up with maximum outputs of their employee performance (Jones et al, 2000). Employee Performance is an evaluation of the results of that employees work outcomes and it involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a job.
When employee performance in organizations in not up to the mark the managers must then find
out which factors need to be improved in order to increase the employee performance again (Lussier, 2005). A lot of different factors affect the performance of employees such as personality, the difficulty of the task, availability of resources and working conditions. In order to have higher levels of work productivity, the managers and employees must be having resources and enough motivation. Luthans and Stajkovic (2000) and Armstrong and Murlis (2004) held the view that job recognition is a motivator facto for better employee performance in organizations. Oldham and Hackman (2010), Lawler (1969) argued that job design also holds importance in effecting employee’s performance. The organizational aim is to develop a team of motivated employees and also give them sufficient support regarding their respective works for best levels of employee performance (Shadare et al., 2009).
Therefore, employee performance is carefully noted at all levels of the organization. No matter
an employee’s level in the organization, everyone has the opportunity to lead in some capacity and have a positive impact on overall employee performance. According to Aguinis (2009), employee’s performance is about the behavior of employees in their work place and not what their work outcome is. Employee performance is an effort along with the ability to put efforts supported with the organizational policies in order to achieve certain objectives. Campbell (1990) also defines employee performance as behavior. It is something done by the employee. This concept differentiates performance from outcomes. Outcomes are the result of an individual’s performance, but they are also the result of other factors which have an influence.
According to Clark and Mayor (2016), the e-learning and e-training can help a lot in the manner as this is allowing learning totally a new experience which would be without any traditional brick and mortar training. It is the time over the period in which businesses are getting regularly changed and framed and thus adapting the highly innovative training programs for young and new talent. The major purpose is the bundle of benefits which must be considered for the better career approach as well as for better oriented measures. Bruce-Mayne (2012) considered that these are also bringing flexibility, training time, training delivery, diverse content availability and many other allowances and benefits. Employees should learn that how they can use the resources better and efficiently and also for the longer period of time (Bosman, 2016).
It is somehow indicated in the study of Lizano and Barak (2015) that employees would turn themselves toward a better extreme in the organizations which would enhance their work productivity as well. This would also raise the number of employees and thus create a competition which in itself having better advantages. Organizations of modern time are also having the better work approach which is bringing the employees for better work orientations (Pinder, 2014). There are many appropriate ways in which the training could be delivered and departed effectively. In the workplace, the thing is highly beneficial for the employees and their growth. It is important and thus obvious to know that employees could only make a mark if there is the better and well-designed approach of working.
According to the researchers such as Bradach and Taylor (2010), there is a great similarity between e-training and e-learning. The similarity is usually in the sense of delivery and the technology. Both reaserchers have studied the combined effects upon the working of e-learning and e-training. They have been illuminated the major difference between both these strategies as well. On one hand, e-training is referring explicitly to the shorter time learning. On the other hand, e-learning is actually designed for learning out the major skill and learning outcome.
Clark and Mayer (2016) took a new stand when they claimed that there are some of the types which have been identified that e-training is making a different impact upon the learning of employees as well as upon performance. These common types are actually including the video conferencing as well as web-based training. Allen (2016) in his research focused that It is only of worth if delivered and departed well from the hands of the trainer. It is only the thing which there is the great use of technology and it is stipulated that e-training is only in the use of technology by a trainer while delivering the specific knowledge over the period of time. It could not occur simply if there is no any role of a medium such as an internet or intranet.
A mutual study was conducted by Ghadha and Rodrigo (2008), that employees and their performance is usually affected by the barriers in the way of effective e-learning training. Employees and their performance could never be ensured perfectly if there is not a well and prepared training structure by the organization. Hu. and Xu. along with Dinev and Ling (2011) believe that companies must adopt a comprehensive model for the effective training of their employees. If employees are not giving the right performance then organizations must go for looking the structure of learning culture in the organizations. It is often worked as an integral part of their workforce training and learning process.
Mohsin and Sulaiman (2013) in International Journal of Asian Social Science pg. 2006-2018 stated their research has been also identified the comparison between the Asian and western companies. It is also the foremost practice in the western companies that they have been mostly adopted the models of training for their employees. It is not exceptional that there are not so many barriers while implementing those models but actually those are working well in order to remove those barriers. The barriers have been also identified which has been helped to create a brief comparison.
The barriers for those models are lack of management support, language barriers, IT problems and workload and lack of time. These all variables would affect the working of employees and also their performance. The barriers are actually common in the Western culture but especially are the barriers of technology and time (Kajiyama, et. al. 2013). Management support and language barriers are common among all and these are actually the major barriers which are not allowing the employees to give their full performance.
The model which is designed by the Western companies usually follows the learning development cycle such as plan-design-integrate-improve. If the stages of designing, integration, planning and improving are ignored then there would not be the effective learning for the employees. There must be the complete integration of the e-learning tools and processes. If there is the lack of management support then there would not be the effective learning process for employees (Mohsin and Sulaiman, 2013). Employees in this way could not go for ensuring their best and it ultimately affects their performance.
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