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# Class of aircraft

Problem 1: Pick a class of aircraft from the list below and for 3 different aircraft in that class, find, determine, or estimate the list of parameters for each of the aircraft and explain the process used to determine each parameter. All parameters that are found from a source must be verified.

Class of Aircraft

4) Double Decker

A380: full double decker

1. a) Reference Area： 9,380 ft^2[1]
2. b) Wingspan：90 m (300 ft^2)[2]
3. c) Aspect ratio：7.53[3]
4. d) Wetted Area ：54087 ft^2 (assumed 100% turbulent flow)[4]
5. e) Cruise L/D : 18.51[5]
6. f) Fuel Fraction ：44.2%[6]
7. g) Plot a range map and determine a city pair at the edge of the maximum range that the aircraft can operate: 8500 nm (passenger)[7]

i.e. From Hong Kong to Miami

1. h) SFC: 15.5 (g/s)/kN[8]

Boeing 777: optional lower deck lavatories and galley and upper decker crew rest

1. a) Reference Area: 4604.8 ft2[9]
2. b) Wingspan: 200 ft[10]
3. c) Aspect ratio: 9[11]
4. d) Wetted Area: 23528 ft2[12]
5. e) Cruise L/D: 19.4[13]
6. f) Fuel fraction: 41.4%[14]
7. g) Plot a range map and determine a city pair at the edge of the maximum range that the aircraft can operate:

The range of a typical B777 is approximately 7370 miles, or 13649 km.[15]

1. h) SFC: 0.539lb/hr/lb[16]

A330:

1. a) Reference Area：361.6 m^2 3,892 ft^2[17]
2. b) Wingspan : 6030 m[18]
3. c) Aspect ratio: 7.26[19]
4. d) Wetted Area: 2523.1[20]
5. e) Cruise L/D: 18.1[21]
6. f) Fuel fraction: 0.358[22]
7. g) Plot a range map and determine a city pair at the edge of the maximum range that the aircraft can operate: 11750 km[23]
8. h) SFC: 1[24]

Problem 2: Pick an original and derivative aircraft (ie 737-100 and 737-200) and explain and justify the changes required to get from the original to the derivative aircraft.

The development of the longer range 747-400 had a new glass cockpit, which allowed for a cockpit crew of two instead of three, comparing to its oldest version 747-100 new engines. Lighter construction materials, and a redesigned interior were also used. Other improvement included increased size in total (more seats, higher exit limits, larger wing area, increased wing span, more tail height and etc.), higher aspect ratio with an increment of 0.9, new power plants (PW4062, CF6-80C2, RB211-524) and better thrust performance. Development cost soared, and production delays occurred as new technologies were incorporated at the request of airlines. The 747 remained the heaviest commercial aircraft in regular service until the debut of the Antonov An-124 Ruslan in 1982.[25]

Problem 3: Pick any aircraft and describe the “marketing” requirements that you believe drove the design.

B787 Dreamliner is the first aircraft to use mostly composite materials in its airframe. Such design results in lighter weight of the fuselage, comparing to the conventional aluminum body. Higher fuel-efficiency and lighter weight provided reduced operational cost for airlines, especially for low-cost carriers. Distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems for pilots’ ease, raked wingtips, and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles for more efficient flight performance responded to the marketing demand of higher speed but unchanged size.

Problem 4: SKETCH a 3 view of your favorite aircraft and include the major dimensions. Explain why this is your favorite aircraft.

The Douglas DC-8 (also known as the McDonnell Douglas DC-8) is an American four-engine mid- to long-range narrow-body jet airliner built from 1958 to 1972 by the Douglas Aircraft Company. It was the first Douglas jet-powered transport. It entered service simultaneously with United Airlines and Delta Air Lines on Sept. 18, 1959. Throughout its 14-year-long production run, the DC-8 went through seven major variants, for a total of 556 aircraft. It was one of the first airplanes I learned about in my first contact with Aerospace Engineering.

Problem 5: Explain why commercial aircraft are designed for ranges much longer than they are typically operated.

For commercial aircraft, safety has been deemed as the most crucial goal of operating. Aircrafts should not be operating on the edge of its maximum designed performance, which could raise concerns about aviation safety. Limit range indicates serious problems for aircrafts. Reaching its limit, aircraft can have malfunctions or even operation failure during flight, leading to further unwanted situations. For safety issues, aircrafts shall always perform flight tasks within its designed ranges.

[1] http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/A380Simon.pdf

[2] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airbus_A380

[3] http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/A380Simon.pdf

[4] http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/A380Simon.pdf

[5] http://www.dept.aoe.vt.edu/~mason/Mason_f/A380Simon.pdf

[6] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airbus_A380

[7] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airbus_A380

[8] http://webserver.dmt.upm.es/~isidoro/bk3/c17/Aerospace%20engine%20data.pdf

[16] http://www.fzt.haw-hamburg.de/pers/Scholz/GF/SEECKT-RE-KTH_Re-Design_B777_08-09-28.pdf

[17] http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_a330_300_en.php

[18] http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_a330_300_en.php

[19] https://booksite.elsevier.com/9780340741528/appendices/data-a/table-1/table.htm

[20] https://booksite.elsevier.com/9780 340741528/appendices/data- a/table-1/table.htm

[21] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lift-to-drag_ratio

[22] https://booksite.elsevier.com/9780 340741528/appendices/data- a/table-1/table.htm

[23] https://www.airbus.com/aircraft/p assenger-aircraft/a330- family/a330-300.html

[24] Dr Jim Scanlan, ed. (16 July 1999). "Rolls-Royce Turbofan Engines cost and performance data Spreadsheet"

[25] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_747

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