Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment at The Lowest Price Now!


Antimicrobial And Antineoplastic Agents

Mechanism of action of Pembrolizumab and its uses in monotherapy and in combination therapy

Mechanism of Action

Pembrolizumab is a monoclonal antibody class medicine. It operates by binding to the receptor PD-1 and prevents its interaction with receptors PD-L1 and PD-L2. These receptors are present on the T- cells, B cells, monocytes, natural killer T cells, and APC. These receptors have an immune-modulating effect on peripheral tolerance. inhibits t cell proliferation and cytokine production. Upregulation of PD-1 receptors happens in some tumors and communication through this pathway will contribute to inhibition of active T-cell immune surveillance of tumors. The overall impact is a PD-1 suppression of the immunological reaction and the immunological reaction.PD-1 is expressed on antigen-inspired T cells and induces downstream signaling. Many tumors, inclusive of melanoma, suppress cytotoxic T-cell activity via way of means of expressing PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) at the cell surface. Anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies can reverse this T-cell suppression and result in long-lasting antitumor responses.

Monotherapy in melanoma

It is indicated for the patients with unresectable tumors and also for melanoma with lymph node involvement after complete resection. Because it enables the body's cancer-fighting immune system. Combat the metastasized or disseminated cancer-cell malignancy in other locations from the initial tumor.

Non-small cell lung cancer

It has an acceptable side effect profile and demonstrated anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. The PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of the tumor cells correlated with its increased efficiency.

Combination therapy

Pembrolizumab in combination with ipilimumab

When given to patients with advanced melanoma who had improved on PD-1 antibody therapy, pembrolizumab plus low-dose ipilimumab showed antitumor activity. Studies show that its not very effective and does not ensure long life and yet it is used with risk management strategies.

Pembrolizumab in Combination with Axitinib

Has shown improvement and anti-tumor activity in patients with renal cell carcinoma. In combination with 5 mg of oral axitinib two times per day until disease progression, for pembrolizumab, up to 24 months in patients with no progression of the illness is the dosage of pembrolizumab 200 mg per intravenous infusion every 3 weeks.


Flynn, J. P., & Gerriets, V. (2020). Pembrolizumab. StatPearls [Internet].

Workings of Oncotype DX and information gathering for early analysis of breast cancer

Oncotype DX - Its commercial genomic test predicts the risk of disease recurrence in breast cancer patients. The Oncotype DX genomic test looks at the function of 21 genes that can affect how likely a cancer is to spread and react to treatment. It tests a sample of a cancerous tumor to see the activity of certain genes that can affect the outcome of cancer and how likely it is to grow and spread. The test uses tissue that was removed during the first biopsy or surgery. It measures the genes of breast cancer. It uses automated algorithms to measure the expression of 16 cancer-linked genes, and to provide a recurrence score in total, multiplied by the group factor to which each gene is assigned relative to the mean expression of five genes.

In early-stage breast cancer, this test can be done if the patient has estrogen receptors and should not have excessive amounts of human epidermal growth factor protein. In several clinical trials, the RS score suggests that the percentage of chemotherapy received and the association between RS and chemotherapy benefit for women with HR+/HER2−/N0 breast cancer according to the particular age group is very effective in early precaution. The Oncotype DX breast cancer test is utilized more and more for guiding early stage, hormone-positive, H-2 negative breast cancer treatment choices, independent of histological subtype. The outcome is shown as the recurrent score of 0 to 100, separated into the low-risk groups (<18), intermediate-risk categories (18-30), and high-risk categories (two-three1). Our pilot investigation revealed that recurrence may be predicted by a conventional morpho immunological and histologic factors equation.

The useful information it provides can be useful in deciding the treatment based on recurrence score.

Low recurrence score(0-25)

  • The score is considered low if it is under 25.
  • The chances of cancer remission are low.
  • This means the chemotherapy may not worth the risk of having side effects.
  • It cant guarantee no cancer or no remission even with low score cancer can return.
  • Chemotherapy is advised in some adults with high-risk groups.

High recurrence score(26-100)

  • The score is considered high if it is more than 31.
  • The chances of remission are much higher.
  • Chemotherapy with cancer treatment increases the likelihood that cancer will not come back.
  • A high recurrence score doesn’t mean that your cancer will definitely come back.


McVeigh, T. P., Hughes, L. M., Miller, N., Sheehan, M., Keane, M., Sweeney, K. J., & Kerin, M. J. (2014). The impact of Oncotype DX testing on breast cancer management and chemotherapy prescribing patterns in a tertiary referral center. European Journal of Cancer, 50(16), 2763-2770.

3. Immunoconjugate chemotherapy and therapeutic use of Gemtuzfumab Ozogamicin and Trastuzumab Maytansine.

Immunoconjugates are specific and effective anticancer therapies. Immunoconjugates are made up of 3 components- an antibody that binds to a cancer cell antigen with high sensitivity, an effector molecule with a high capacity to destroy the cancer cell, and a linker that ensures the effector does not detach from the antibody during transit and efficiently delivers the effector to the cancer cell.The early conjugates were investigated in human clinical trials, but were restricted to tumour selectivity, immunogenicity and lack of potency. These early research have led to advancements in basically all elements of antibody conjugation therapy and, thus, a revived interest in ADC technology

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin is a monoclonal antibody (ADC) combined with a cytotoxic compound, N-acetyl-gamma-calicheamicin, which is aimed against CD33. It is recommended to treat acute myeloid leukemia freshly formed in adults. In adults and children patients aged 2 years and older for the treatment of recurrence or refractory CD33-positive acute myeloid leukemia. It is used as an add-on treatment (after surgery) in early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer when the patient has received neoadjuvant treatment (before surgery) that includes taxane and trastuzumab and cancer remains in the tissue that was removed during surgery.

Trastuzumab emtansine is a conjugation of the antibody that is covalently bonded to the cytotoxic chemical DM1 in the humanized monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin). Catabolization of DM1 containing catabolites in cells in lysosomes is carried out, which binds with tubulin, causing mitotic arrest and cell death. Trastuzumab binding to HER2 hinders homodimerization or heterodimerization. Patients must have previously received therapy for metastatic disease or have had the disease recurrence during or within six months of completing adjuvant therapy. In cases with acute myeloid leukemia, the antibody is directed against the CD33 antigen in leukemia (AML). The cytotoxic drug stops the proliferation of cancer cells and induces cell death by bonding the CD33 antigen to malignancies.


Smaglo, B. G., Aldeghaither, D., & Weiner, L. M. (2014). The development of immunoconjugates for targeted cancer therapy. Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, 11(11), 637.

Muldoon, L. L., & Neuwelt, E. A. (2003). BR96–DOX immunoconjugate targeting of chemotherapy in brain tumor models. Journal of neuro-oncology, 65(1), 49-62.

Section B

Mechanisms of action, use, and limitations of these classes of antineoplastic agents.

  1. Bischlorethylamines (33.3%)
  2. Anthracycline antibiotics (33.3%)
  3. Aromatase inhibitors (33.3%)

1. Bischlorethylamines

Mechanism of action - The alkyl group is attached to the DNA base to avoid the DNA and RNA transcription from the DNA damaged by the DNA being fragmented by repair enzymes in their attempts to replace the alkylated base; DNA damage caused by cross-links (bonds between atoms inside the DNA) that hinder the separation of DNA for synthesis or transcription; and activation of nuclear mutation mispairing. The phase-non-specific cell cycle is Mechlorethamine. The reduction in intracellular cholesterol reserves, in turn, promotes the receptor expression of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to membranes of the hepatocyte surface. Reduced cholesterol intracellular may also boost cholesterol production by activating HMG CoA reductase.

Use - Hodgkin's lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bronchogenic carcinoma.

Limitations - There is a slight chance of having blood cancer and then there is side effect such as low blood count it can leave patients vulnerable to other infections. They do not induce CNS damage when used at typical dosages. The medicine has been documented to cause encephalopathy, headache, and seizures when used in bone marrow transplantation preparation.

2. Anthracycline antibiotics

Mechanism of action - Inhibits the manufacture of DNA and RNA by intercalating base pairs of the DNA/RNA strand, stopping rapidly developing cancer cells from being replicated.

Inhibits the topoisomerase II enzyme, which prevents DNA transcription and replication by relaxing the supercoiled DNA. Creates free oxygen iron-mediated radicals damaging the DNA and cell membranes. These processes are responsible for stopping DNA replication and cell processes for transcription. Comprehension of structural and conformational changes related to nuclear acid

Use - indicated for lymphoma, leukemia, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, etc.

Limitations - It causes chronic cardiotoxicity, restricting its use in drug-sensitive patients. It also causes myelosuppression but Fortunately, therapeutic cytokines are introduced that enable myelosuppression to be managed. Therefore, anthracycline-based anti-cancer medicines remain at the severe disadvantage of heart harm.

3. Aromatase inhibitors

Mechanism of action - The anti-estrogenic effect of the aromatase enzyme, mainly in the adrenal glands, liver, and fatty tissues, is selectively and competitively inhibited. Many breast cancers are hormone-positive, meaning the growth of hormones such as estrogen or progesterone is stimulated and/or maintained. In women with postmenopausal problems, the estrogen is mainly derived from the conversion of adrenally manufactured androgen into estrogens through the aromatase enzyme – anastrozole effectively suppressed the circulating estrogen levels and consequently the development of hormone-positive tumors through competitive inhibition of the biosynthesis of estrogens at these enzymes. Inhibitors of aromatases are not capable of stopping the ovaries from producing estrogen and are therefore used mainly to treat postmenopausal women. But because aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal women are so much more efficient than tamoxifen, researchers asked whether premenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer can be successfully treated using aromatase inhibitors. The best hormonal treatment, to begin with, is an aromatase inhibitor. Aromatase inhibitors show more advantages and fewer major side effects than tamoxifen for treating early-stage, hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. The risk of cancer return, compared with non-treatment following tamoxifen, continues to be reduced for 5 years.

Use - Indicated for breast cancer generally in postmenopausal women. It can also be used in gynecomastia, endometriosis, and infertility.

Limitations - Can cause Heart problems and osteoporosis.The possibility for adverse effects on lipid metabolism and homocysteine is an important worry related to oestrogen suppression.


Nakamura, T., & Uchida, M. (1988). Mechanism of action of antineoplastic agents in the DNA synthesis of tumor cells. Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy, 15(4 Pt 2-1), 1003-1010.

Contrast and comparison between targeted chimeric antigen receptor and microtubule inhibitors.

1. Targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell

Chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) include an intracellular T-cell signaling sequence which is often fusioned into one or more intracellular T-cell sequences as single-chain variable fragments derived from a monoclonal antibody. Chimeric cell receptor antigen T (CAR-T) showed promising effects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia recurring/refractory (R/R) (ALL). The immunological response from the murine fragment of a single chain CAR variable (scFv) may decrease the persistence of the CAR-T cell and raise the likelihood of recurrence leukemia.

Advantages - In the field of cancer immunotherapies, CAR-T cell therapy represents an important feature, together with immune controls, including programmed blockages of the protein associated with death-1 (PD-1), and cytotoxic-toxic T lymphocyte-4 (CTLA-4). The clinical reaction to immune inhibitors of patients with a high level of mutation load is ideal, while patients with a low mutation load are less responsive. CAR-T cells have been encouragingly confirmed to be highly efficient for low mutation burden patients. One key to CAR-T therapy's clinical success is to select an ideal objective that should be expressed uniformly on the surface of tumor cells and not in vital, safe cells. CD19 is considered a promising goal based on the expression of B-cell malignancies despite its inductive, clinically manageable cell aplasia.

Limitations - Disease relapse

On-target, off-tumor toxicities - The majority of antigens selected are not tumor-specific, but they are overexpressed only on tumor cells so that CAR-T cells cannot kill targeted tumor cells securely. B lymphocytes aplasia is off-tumor toxicity clinically manageable that is prevalent in the therapy of CD19-controlled CAR-T cells.

2. Microtubule Inhibitors

As their name implies, microtubular inhibitors disrupt microtubules and inhibit mitosis which is a particular phase of the cell cycle. Vinca alkaloids and taxanes are anti-cancer agents in this class. Paclitaxel is the most frequent chemical therapy medication used for breast, lung and ovarian cancers and sarcomas associated with AIDS. Paclitaxel works as an inhibitor of a microtubule to stabilize polymerized microtubules during mitosis, resulting in the G2 and M stages of the cell cycle arrest. Solubility is a big problem for this medicine since Cremophor and dehydration ethanol must be delivered in a solution. These vehicles themselves might have hazardous consequences and lead to the inability to employ this chemical therapeutic medicine in patients at larger doses. Inhibitors of the microtubules, such as taxane chemotherapy, cause ICD through endoplasmic reticular stress, resulting in a calreticulin translocation to the plasma membrane and leading to immunocytes. DCS are then exposed to tumor antigens leading to increased immunity to Type I through increased infiltration of cell T cytotoxics. By activating innate immunity, paclitaxel can increase pro-inflammatory responses. On this premise and on the basis of the recent success of immune test inhibitors in cancer treatment, we will discuss how this can improve the adaptive anti-tumor immune response and argue that a combination therapy based on low taxanes and inhibitors at an immune control point can be of great therapeutic benefit, with regard to widening applicability, lower toxicity and greater antitumor response.

Advantages - Because of their crucial role in mitosis, microtubules are important cell objectives for cancer therapy. The stabilization or stability of microtubule (MTI) inhibitors such as taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and epothilones, which effectively block progressions in the cell cycle and result in apoptosis, eliminate microtube dynamics necessary to achieve proper mitotype. Inborn or acquired medicinal resistance to taxane-like MTIs are common despite their antitumor activity,

limiting their overall clinical effectiveness. Further information on the mechanisms for the action of drug targeting microtubules has led to the discovery of new agents that have limited toxicity to provide greater efficacy.

Limitations - While MTAs have shown to be very effective for the treatment of cancer, their applicability in the clinical environment may be affected by the adverse side effects of their long and short-term use. The main causes of medicated cytotoxicity are DNA damage and apoptosis. Another one of its limitations is drug resistance.MTAs may be constrained to respond with mutations or changed block expression α- and β-tubulin. But a more frequent technique of resisting MTAs is supposed to be a "mitotic slipping" adaptive mechanism.


Turtle, C. J., Riddell, S. R., & Maloney, D. G. (2016). CD19-Targeted chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell immunotherapy for B-cell malignancies. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 100(3), 252-258.

Perez, E. A. (2009). Microtubule inhibitors: Differentiating tubulin-inhibiting agents based on mechanisms of action, clinical activity, and resistance. Molecular cancer therapeutics, 8(8), 2086-2095.


Most anticancer chemotherapy drugs impact nuclear acids by modifying the molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid. It is very vital to determine while dealing with malignant tumors The effect on the therapeutic ratio of chemical radiosensitizers. Numerous compounds increase the regression of animal tumors induced by radiation and extend their life Of the hosts that carry the tumor. However, these consequences can occur in various cases Only at the price of increased tissue damage. Nothing is their Increased treatment ratio and equivalent outcomes might be achieved by Raising the radiation dosage.

As additives to radiation treatment in inoperative carcinoma bronchogenic, the alkylating drugs were ineffective. In combination with radiation treatment, fluorinated pyrimidines have resulted in survival extended in several groups of inoperative gastrointestinal, bronchogenic, and intraoral cancer patients and better palliation. Following FU plus radiation, advanced pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas appeared to return more swiftly than after radiation therapy alone, and local control rate and a five-year survival rate improved dramatically in a number of patients with oral and tonsillar carcinomas. The occurrence of serious toxic responses can only be lowered to the lowest feasible level by the adjustment of the dosage of chemicals and radiation to the patient's tolerance.

Assignment Help Features
Assignment Help Services
  • Assignment Help
  • Homework Help
  • Writing Help
  • Academic Writing Assistance
  • Editing Services
  • Plagiarism Checker Online
  • Proofreading
  • Research Writing Help
QR Code Assignment Help